What is internet? IXP? how it works?

What is internet? IXP? how it works?

internet, telecommunication
First assumption before reading this article is you (readers) already have experience of connecting to internet, either by checking email, browsing website, transfer file, and many other things. In the previous article, you know that we can build a network using devices like router and switches. with network computers can communicate to each other through a media. internet actually, is just a collection of network where computer can access each other. ¬†This article will talk about¬†how internet works. (more…)
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What is multiplex, multiple access?

What is multiplex, multiple access?

multiplexing, telecommunication
For those who learns telecommunications or networking (computer) there is an important technology/concept that you need to know that is multiplexing. in this article, we will talk about what is multiplex, multiple access?. it would be better if you already familiar with the telecommunication terms. So what is multiplexing or demultiplexing? Multiplexing means a process to combine multiple signal stream (can be digital or analog signal) into one physical medium. At the end of communication link, there will be a demultiplexing process that split the combined signals into individual stream. These devices the job are called multiplexer (MUX) and demultiplexer (DEMUX / DMX). see picture below: (more…)
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Central office, switch, trunks, local loop

Central office, switch, trunks, local loop

layer 1, layer 2, telecommunication
In the early of telephone communication, a central office (aka. telephone exchange, switch) provides a coverage area where all telephones should connect to it. these physical connections from customer premise to central office is called access network / local loop / subscriber line. (Central office, switch, trunks, local loop) Why is it called switch? Because it switches (connects) connection between subscribers. With switching capability, 2 subscribers can communicate because their physical lines are connected by the switch. in the beginning, this switching process was done by human. later on, its automated by mechanical switches and then fully digital. max distance of cable? when the signal travels over cable, it gets attenuated. therefore, there is a maximum limit of local loop distance (around 3-4 km), which defines a coverage area of…
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